Our Celestial Empire possesses all things in prolific abundance and lacks no product within its own borders. There was therefore no need to import the manufactures of outside barbarians in exchange for our own produce. But as the tea, silk and porcelain which the Celestial Empire produces, are absolute necessities to European nations and to yourselves, we have permitted, as a signal mark of favour, that foreign hongs should be established at Canton, so that you wants might be supplied and your country thus participate in our beneficence.
- Emperor Qian Long's letter to King George III, 1793
Wednesday, June 04, 2008
for the '10 OPs to every RP' phenemenon