Update: Travis Spencer pointed out that the model I describe below as 'horrible', where the email app collects the enterprise password and uses it on each IMAP call, has advantages - key of which are that it creates no new password and can work with existing email clients. I defend my disgust due to the undesirability of storing the enterprise password on the device
Inspired by a customer conversation, and mindful that (most but sadly not all of) my Ping colleagues take great enjoyment from my taxonomizing, I describe here the different permutations by which an enterprise employee can be authenticated when using a native mobile application client of a SaaS email provider (instead of a browser interface).
Note: although presented in the context of email, the various permutations are relevant to any native SaaS application.
The different options can be characterized by
- Which entity issued (and will subsequently validate) the password used for authenticating the employee –the enterprise or the email provider
- How that password is used, ie where does the employee type it in – an enterprise login page, an email provider login page, or the native email application
The resulting combinations have very different security characteristics, discussed below.
Enterprise password presented to enterprise login page
This is the ideal from a security PoV – the employee continues to use only their existing enterprise password, and presents that password only to the enterprise itself. Additionally, if the authentication happens at the enterprise, then stronger authentication than password is possible.
But if the actual authentication happens at the enterprise, then necessarily the fact of that needs to be communicated to the email provider – this requirement satisfied by SAML SSO.
The scenario is show below
The interaction between the email application on the phone and the email provider is shown as happening via OAuth. Strictly speaking (and especially if the email provider builds their own native app) this is not necessary.
The above presumes that the IMAP exchange between the email app and the email provider is authenticated by OAuth tokens, rather than passwords (the current reality). Google led some work in 2010 defining just such a binding but it’s not clear if that has progressed.
This scenario is attractive because
1. The employee has no new email-specific password to remember
2. The employee presents their enterprise password only to the enterprise
Note that the SAML SSO step need happen only infrequently (based on enterprise policy) because the token(s) issued down to the native email client can have a long lifetime. One consequence of long-lived tokens is that, should the enterprise wish to cut off acccess to the employee’s email, they must actively reach out and delete the corresponding account at the email provider – using SCIM or equivalent.
Enterprise password presented to SaaS login page
Instead of relying on SAML SSO as the means of authenticating the employee to the email provider, the email provider could collect the employee’s enterprise credential itself, and then validate that password with the enterprise.
This is shown below
While the employee need not remember a new password specific to email, the email provider will know the employee’s enterprise password, and could misuse it if so inclined.
Enterprise password presented to email app
The above scenario had the employee present their enterprise password to the email provider in a web page (with attendant security issues). Even worse is to have the employee present their enterprise password directly to the email application – this then validated back at the enterprise.
This scenario is shown below
While this scenario leverages the existing enterprise password, it does so at the cost of having the employee share it with the email application – setting a possible precedent in the employee’s mind that could be leveraged in a phish.
A variant of the above would have the email app store the enterprise password, and use that on the IMAP calls, rather than a token issued off the password. As for above, the email provider would validate that password at the enterprise. This scenario is to horrible to even contemplate and I’ll not mention it again.
Email password presented to enterprise login page
Any taxonomy inevitably has some nonsensical corners and this scenario is one such – as it implies the employee be issued an email provider specific password, but present it to their enterprise for subsequent validation at the email provider. Which is crazy.
Let’s move on.
SaaS password presented to SaaS login page
This scenario is shown below
The above of course implies that the employee be issued (and must remember) a new password specific to the email provider.
SCIM supports the provisioning call by which the enterprise would manage the password at the email provider.
As before, the above presumes that IMAP has been tokenized, ie OAuth tokens (or equivalent) can be used in pace of the email password itself.
Revocation would require the enterprise actively delete the email provider account (or equivalent, change the password) with a SCIM delete user call (or proprietary equivalent).
Email password presented to email app
If, instead of presenting the email specific password to the email provider in a login page, the employee presented the password directly to the email app, we end up to the scenario shown below
As for the previous scenario, the enterprise pushes a password over to the email provider in an a priori provisioning step.
Although the employee will have a new password, it’s likely that they would initially provide it to the email app and never see it again. Once exchanged for a token(s), the email application would not store the password (or hopefully wouldn’t).
A variant of the above would have the email application present the password on each and every call to the email provider to retrieve mail, rather than an equivalent token.
While far from ideal, this scenario is the current reality. This is, for instance, how Ping employees access Gmail using 3rd party email apps (like Thunderbird on Android). Google’s own GMail app supports a model more like the first.
The above is summarized graphically as
where the colour-coding represents (my) assessment of how optimal the authentication model is – green being good, red bad, and orange in the middle.